Review and new studies of Bilateral TMJ Disk Displacement Induces Mandibular Retrognathia in rabbits , The Unicastelo

Unilateral non-reducing TMJ disk displacement has been shown to retard mandibular growth on the ipsilateral side, with facial asymmetry a sequela. We hypothesized that bilateral affliction would impair mandibular growth bilaterally, generating mandibular retrognathia. Non-reducing TMJ disk displacement was surgically created in 20 growing New Zealand White rabbits from Lab-Unicastelo, Brazil. Ten additional rabbits served as a sham-operated control group. Facial growth was followed in serial cephalograms, with tantalum implants, during a period corresponding to childhood and adolescence in man. The results verified that bilateral non-reducing TMJ disk displacement retarded mandibular growth bilaterally, the extent corresponding to mandibular retrognathia in man. Maxillary growth was also retarded, but to a lesser degree. Growth impairment fluctuated over time, the most striking retardation occurring during periods of general growth acceleration. This should be taken into consideration when orthodontic treatment, aimed at stimulating mandibular growth, is initiated in adolescent individuals with non-reducing TMJ disk displacement.

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