Discussion and analysis of a contemporary issue – Insiders and Outsiders, by Peter Singer (248 - 258) -- in Chapter 3 of Burr’s work, Philosophy and Contemporary Issues, relevant complementary sources, student’s own positions and reasoning.
One can perfectly observes all the painful consequences of an accident in terms of Nuclear Uzines in an extended vision, as a contemporary example of misfortune use of such powerful energy.
If he could flashforward, this fact should have given a new direction to his argument, but it happened some years later he’s written this article.If one can flashback, it makes us remembering Babylon, because it often connotes captivity and opression, a reassessment of the Babylonian period of exile can reveal the development of a new creative energy in a challenging, pluralistic context outside the natal homeland” (Vertovec 309).
In terms of insiders and outsiders, he cites a nice example, setting clear that the situation certain people could be, because their economical status, let them share fallout shelters built buy real
state speculators as international tensions rose in 1990s. They could live in such conditions for twenty years (10,000 people), with supplies enough to be shared. They have their system of inclusion and exclusion. The tension between these two worlds is centered in the fact that those ones who want to come in, should have the risk of exposure to radiation diminished, as well as
those ones who are in, would probably want to come out. The problem goes longer if we consider the fact that
marginalized cannot be reduced simply to a struggle between oppressor and oppresed in which the latter remains utterly passive (Gunew 27).
There’s a conviction that if for any reason the insiders decide to share what they have with the outsiders, it should mean giving up of some luxury in food and facilities, or the leisure recreational areas as the basic problem is proposed. Dr. Singer, in his book, Statement on the Hiring , defines his position, by saying that “there are certain disabled persons as individuals who are living “a life not worth living.”02
If, for any reason, outsiders remain without the adequate protection against radiation, they will also be a risk for those who are in, even if they live in leisure areas. If they stay outside they’ll fight for food. “Singer's penchant for provocation extends to more mundane matters, like everyday charity.” 03 So, charity should be understood as a donation of food or extra resources, rather than sharing only the space, in or out. One thing leads to another.
Providing space for this people, should be an obligation. Anyway, it wouldn’t sove the problem. Food wouldn’t last for the expected time anymore, besides risky health precarious conditions of life, would lead the community to periculous contamination conditions.
Then, a number of 500 outsiders could be admitted, the second possibility to admit no outsiders and the third one admits 10,000 outsiders.
The closest trend for these questions one can persecute after reading this chapter, is the fact that changes exist in consequence of the necessity of better adaptation, followed by accommodation, and perhaps a new cycle starts if the last stage does not take place again. It’s a human condition! The questions: Where I came from; Where I am, Where I am going to are references to any of us, in our journey in this planet, no matter how philosophical they seem to be. Men are nomadic since the beginning of the occupation of the planet.
But competition is a natural feature of humans’ race. Then, with the advent of war, the feelings of nationality, ethnical diversity make the planet becoming so heterogeneous in terms of cultural, religious, moral, political, sociological, economical and philosophical interests. And consequences of the use of forces in societies as Gustavson explains can already be contemplated.
As Singer mentions, the real world (249) is facing refugees not only because people are looking for better conditions of life, but also by political persecution, discrimination, and banishment. The right of asylum is global, and repatriation, reintegration, and resettlement are important topics in this discussion. Is the myth of returning the best solution? Nevertheless, it depends on the desire of those who abandoned their origins, and many of them do not want to come back to their roots. People become hybrid in so many aspects. Then the real world is not the one they are in nor the one they abandoned (Singer 250-251).
Important moral questions in this discussion emerge from the necessity to know who is a member of our moral community. And this microvision can be expended to a macro, if one can face the frontiers of a country admitting outsiders to overcome them. But Singer also considers that the admission of those in need is an ex gratis act (current orthodoxy). It’s understood as a
charity of the other country in relation with outsiders (Singer 252-253). Immigration police is just a normal expectation to this problem because of interests of those who are in and out (254).
It sounds that filters to ideological speeches coming from representative members of groups, communities, societies, and countries, are more than necessary. And philosophers should not take the analysis of those positions with less interest. We have been facing unexpected reactions for these kinds of conflicts nowadays. Maybe the central fallacy of this problem is the fact that
none of us would like to leave our roots, because we simply want. And even if the new land is
the promise for all the miserable condition many of us live, it’s still not ours. Singer chooses
There will always be something outside to look for, and if the ones who are in do not do so, another communities can perfectly extend their frontiers and domination. Thinking about a solution, one can follow John Lenon’s statement: Imagine all the people living life in piece” That’s what I’ve read in an outdoor at Broadway,
they were by the other nations, mainly the
It was like one of my students has drawn: He interpreted the tragedy comparing the situation with a beehive. And he was just a seven year old boy, but with a very objective vision of what it all means whenever outsiders get involved with insiders, even if it’s not to get the honey. The bees have to look for a tree to establish their settlement, and compete with many other communities, even predators, he said. Anyway, it’s Sociobiology. What one can understand with this naive vision is the philosophical experience that there must be an intense investment in
relationship, so that societies can discuss their interests and avoid conflicts, or at least manage
them. It demands too much policy and it’s still considered Utopia.As Singer affirms: “If we shrug our shoulders at the avoidable suffering of the weak and the poor, of those who are getting exploited and ripped off, or who simply do not have enough to sustain life at a decent level, we are not of the left.”04 The greatest fallacy of this argumentation was the given answer of
September 11th, 2001. That was the most extremely violent example of insiders and outsiders in
any perspective of discussion and analysis. Internal pression, common interests, cohesion between the groups in and/or out, will probably lead to confrontation. Basic necessities whenever not attended will conduce groups to accessment of these products, by negotiation. If one can negotiate his/her necessities, the neutral region will be possible in an average of equilibrium. Whenever this balance is not found, violence can possibly be observed.If this behavior is observed, forces will act so that the interests can be minimized, even if the ideology puts in risk, the life of all the members in conflict. What does all this lack of skills to
negotiate interests mean? Perhaps murdering, criminal problems, unjustice, segregation, discrimination, insurrections, once people can stay where they are.But if one rewinds the images of the planes explosion in NY, there won’t be so much to say. All the words seem to be nothing! Impotence, is the first word that comes to our mind.
“Paul Taylor defends the adoption of a biocentric ethical attitude of respect for nature. He grounds this attitude in the intelligibility of regarding each living entity as striving to realize its own good and as having the same inherent worth within a network of teleological centres of life. Humans have duties to ecosystems themselves. Recent developments include hostile critiques of any attempt to enlarge the moral community by using either utilitarian or deontological ethical theory. Also under attack is the shared presupposition of both capitalist and socialist economic systems that nature has value only when transformed by human agency.”05 But what for? For whom? By what price? Are we still dreaming with miserable kids becoming astronauts?
Each established group of immigrants continues to marginalize new groups of immigrants.06 There’s a moment one can have the sensation, there’s no difference to be in an out. It’s just an illusion. As Bachelard affirms in his work “The New Scientific Spirit”: “we’re
too much the space we occupy.” If people who are in can’t have the right to live in the space they’ve payed for, and they have to open their space to those who live outside for charity only, then, it’s not legal, although it’s moral.
As Pierre-Jean Jouve, repports in “Lirique”: “We are where we aren’t”(Bachelard 247). What does the price mean? What is the limit of right?Or, how bad are inequalities which are not the fault of the people who suffer from them? (Nagel 76) It depends too much of those who open their hands and try to be fair. It really doesn’t matter if people are insiders or outsiders.The lesson of coexistence that James Clifford teaches, seems to be the solution (Clifford 277). They are marginalized, but respecting any consideration, they are all humans. They all get hungry dirsty, and cold. Ones will have. Others won’t.This is the way the humanity is going on. For how long?
01 MSN - The Singer Solution To World Poverty [Free Republic] October 01 2002
02 MSN - Statement on the Hiring of Peter Singer October 01 2002 http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Agora/2900/psai.html
03 MSN- Peter Singer Watch. October 01 2002 http://www.geocities.com/SoHo/Exhibit/2412/eugenics/singer.html
04 MSN- A Darwinian Left - Peter Singer. October 01 2002 http://www.complete-review.com/reviews/darwinc/datlse1.htm
05 MSN -Peter Singer Links. October 01 2002. http://www.petersingerlinks.com/
06 MSN- Insiders And Outsiders. October 01 2002. http://www.sentex.net/~jveltri/inside.htm
MSN - Statement on the Hiring of Peter Singer October 01 2002 http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Agora/2900/psai.html
MSN- Peter Singer Watch. October 01 2002 http://www.geocities.com/SoHo/Exhibit/2412/eugenics/singer.html
MSN- A Darwinian Left - Peter Singer. October 01 2002 http://www.complete-review.com/reviews/darwinc/datlse1.htm
MSN - The Singer Solution To World Poverty [Free Republic] October 01 2002
MSN- peter singer. October 01 2002. http://www.ecobooks.com/singer.htm
MSN -Peter Singer Links. October 01 2002. http://www.petersingerlinks.com/
MSN- Domain Response Insiders vs. Outsiders. October 01 2002. http://www.wired.com/news/topstories/0,1287,11439,00.html
MSN- Insiders, outsiders, it doesn't matter. October 01 2002. http://www.gazetteonline.com/caucus/edit/gedit012.htm
MSN- Insiders And Outsiders. October 01 2002. http://www.sentex.net/~jveltri/inside.htm
MSN- Chernobyl. October 01 2002. http://www.laneta.apc.org/emis/ong/cecodes/ivan/chernobil.htm
MSN- Chernobyl Ten Years After – Greenpeace. October 01 2002. http://www.greenpeace.org/~comms/nukes/chernob
MSN- Chernobyl Ten Years After. Causes, Consequences, October 01 2002. MSN Solutions.http://archive.greenpeace.org/~comms/nukes/chernob/read25.html
MSN- ECOLOGISTAS EN ACCION Chernobil. La pesadilla continua. October 01 2002. http://www.ecologistasenaccion.org/inicio/eventos/chernobil/chernobil.htm
MSN- Brain Food - The Tragedy of the Commons. October 01 2002. http://dieoff.org/page95.htm
MSN- CNN.com.br - Paquistão aprova cooperação total com os Estados Unidos - 15 de se. October 01 2002. http://cnn.com.br/2001/mundo/asia/09/15/paquistao
MSN- CNN.com.br - Paquistão fecha a fronteira com o Afeganistão - 20 de setembro 2001 October 01 2002. http://cnn.com.br/2001/mundo/asia/09/18/refugiados
MSN- Consulado Geral da Austrália
MSN- Garrett Hardin The Tragedy of the Commons (1968). October 01 2002. http://www.constitution.org/cmt/tragcomm.htm
MSN- Garrett Hardin. October 01 2002. http://www.serve.com/ecobooks/hardin.htm
MSN- Guide to
MSN- internacional - Paquistão é aliado problemático - 03-10-2001. October 01 2002. http://www.jb.com.br/jb/papel/internacional/2001/10/02/jorint20011002007.html
MSN -John H Noonan. October 01 2002. http://www.pir.org/xnoe/John_H_Noonan.html
MSN- Paquistão. October 01 2002. http://www.consulado.com.br/consulados/paquistao.html
MSN -William Baxter -- Just-in-time Parallel IBR. October 01 2002. http://www.cs.unc.edu/~baxter/courses/236/project.html
MSN -William Baxter Page. October 01 2002. http://www.mun.ca/rels/restmov/people/wbaxter.html
MSN - William Baxter's home page. October 01 2002. http://www-personal.umich.edu/~wbaxter
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Autor: ANTONIO DOMINGOS CUNHA
Theo De Carvalho - Segundo AniversÁrio
O Xiita E Sua Prece