A comparison between Antoni Gaudi (1852 - 1926) / Barcelona / Spain - - Façade of The Secret Family Temple - - with Poty Lazzarotto (1924-1998) Curitiba/Paraná/ Brazil - - Façade of Guaíra Theater.
By checking some evidences that could give support to a comparison between the architecture (Taylor 90-190) of the cities, Barcelona in Spain, represented by Antoni Gaudi (See Taylor 87, Sculpture), and Poty Lazzarotto’s (See Russell 268, Murals) façades, one can easily find associations between these artists, by taking some observations from Learning to Look, written by Joshua C. Taylor. Although, the first was an architect and artist, and the second, only an artist, they printed beauty out to these mentioned towns. They both had their lives confessed! But beauty, is a relative concept!
As it is reported by Stella Pandell Russell in her work Art in the World, “... [. . .] The essence of creation lies in the recognition of beauty, when it occurs.”(Lippold, Sculpture, 1973). But the treasure of an expressive artistic work (Taylor 51-68) demands responsibility of governors to preserve it. What is the price that societies have been paying for such a long period of time so that the humanity can contemplate the genius spirits of Gaudi and Poty? In this sense, Curitiba has grown so much! Proper use of Architecture and Art! Unhappy, the reception of these changes is not always positive!
There is no doubt that tourism is an economical activity that provides profit for people in a town, but maintenance and renewal are basic procedures in order to preserve the treasures left by artists like Gaudi and Poty. Nowadays architects in Curitiba are printing a convenient style of Arts installation mainly turning their minds to the fact that natural action and depreciation of the works are really part of this investment. The action of “sprayers” can already be seen on pictures of
Lazzarotto is the postcard of important buildings in Curitiba. His murals can be seen in the Government Palace, parks, museums, airport, close to the roads, squares, market, library, and as a façade in front of Guaíra Theater, which has been considered as one of the biggest theaters of South America for a long time which main entrance made in concrete is Lazzarotto’s closest work to Gaudi’s.
“Rubens Meister projected Guaíra Theater” (Guaíra Theater Magazine 1884-1984). Like the Secret Temple, Guaíra Theater also started with a smaller project. The first theater was called Guairinha (“Diminutive of Guaíra in Portuguese”). Similarly, the other side of Secret Temple was also built in a second moment. Gaudi seemed to know that only one man should not conclude a cathedral. It’s work not to be concluded by only one man. It’s work for several generations, he replied. As Gaudi said: “
Like Guaíra Theater, Secret Temple was built based on social forces. They had incomes from the community, even donations (Zerbst 29). “In Gaudi at his most bizarre there is a sensation of contact with deep psychic forces and irrational patterns of imaginative thought” (Curtis 62). The aggregation of Sculptural Arts (Russell 171) to the new buildings is remarkable in both cases, no matter the elements of Gaudi seem to be associated in order to compose the façade (
Religious, Brazilian subjects (History, Technology, Communication, and Fairytales), including people, costumes and uses, and facts related with the whole world” (O Estado do Paraná 1998). He also worked with mosaics, like Gaudi. So, they both have a special language (Russell 40), but as much as one looks to specific characteristics, as closer one can be to a common sense whenever artists manifest their creativity and potentiality, as it can be observed in this comparison, maybe universality.
And the chosen town Barcelona, located at the Mediterranean Sea in the very north of the Spanish coast, is certainly the most cosmopolitan and economically most active city in Spain. It has always proved its will to be modern, to follow the latest international tendencies or be ahead of them. One can see tradition and innovation side by side (See Russell 372). Considering tourism the architecture of Barcelona reflects the general approach to life. Barcelona has an old history, counting on monuments of Romanesque, Gothic and Renaissance specially those ones created in the last century. “Barcelona has been a center of Modernist architecture, distinguished by the works of Gaudí, and his contemporaries who gave exciting looks to it, but has remained since then at the top of modernity.”01
The confrontation of their façades provides personalization, and aggregation of an extra social value to institutions. “In accordance with Michael Foucault (1973) the intellectual practices can be identified as discourses that will look for a negation of the merely empirical status. These speeches aren’t only linked with the legitimization of power, but also how anyone can reach truth [. . .] ” (Alexander 38-39). Gaudi centers his attention to religious arguments - - (Frontal Façade - Jesus’ birth) 02 - - (See Russell 02), and Poty demonstrates historical evidences, and shows a retrospective of the theater throughout the world in his Façade (See Russell 04). Both façades are notorious, relating artist with audience. Even a space to observe the buildings was planed. There’s a big shore in front of Secret Temple, as well as a big square in front of Guaíra Theater. One can keep distance to contemplate them! Cunha 04
More than intellectual facts, they both produced social ones by registering their speeches. And their Arts in front of buildings became public. Religious and Social Forces in service of authority construction (Gustavson 25). Social Fact is defined as “[. . .] the ways to do something, stable or not, whenever it’s possible the exercise an exterior coercion on the person, or all the way of an extension of a society, having a proper existence, independent of individual manifestations”(Durkheim 12).
 Comparing their artistic performances, Secret Family Temple, and Guaíra Theater Façades, no matter the splendor of the church itself, one can have an idea of personalized places. The context in each of them was involved should be observed so that the façades themselves can be understood as the emergence of contemporary social values, represented by their creations, enlightening the cities and enchanting church and theater goers, mainly tourists. “The reconstruction of the reality by the empirical characterization in terms of analysis and unification of the results, is a good way to keep longer the questions of the observer” (Orestan 31). Even blind people would be enchanted with any description!
Antoni Gaudi inspired so many writers along these years since his first biographies were printed out, especially between 1829 and 1953.” Authors had Gaudi’s image confusing sometimes. A cultural and political Renaissance took place in Europe and that was the context. It was a moment of economical prosperity and urban expansion with patronage of a middle class that wanted to be tune with the best European new styles. As Marx observed about Religious convictions mainly in Europe:
The economical bourgeoisie did not pay attention to the mythology and did not simply get identified with the past, the critic of the last society, specially feudal with this one that had to fight against was close to critic that Christianity did about Paganism and Protestantism of Catholicism (Marx 68).
Gaudi did not demonstrate a tendency to manifest his feelings and worries because he Cunha 05
had a sense of privacy. In accordance with his Philosophy, “...something is done so that we can avoid the undone, and work results can be seen only by continuous work combining reflection and action, the precursor requisites of creativity” [Gaudi]. As Yoshida mentions it: [. . . ] “Gaudi understood that
Gaudi was born in June 25th, 1852 in Tierra Baja, in Tarragona, Spain. His works are still being conserved and his methods of work and investigation are known. Gaudi’s family dedicated the energy of their work in artwork. He was considered a very intelligent little boy, but always sick. His desire to do something in terms of architecture started with the excursions they had at the time. He and his friends started getting involved with speeches of recovering of the architectonic patrimony of their town. Then, he graduates in Architecture in 1878, in Condal where his skills were recognized not only for calculation but also a great creativity. His project was oriented by Violler-le-Duc, Elies Rogent, where he demonstrates great interest in Technology, Materials, Arts, applied to construction, and old styles well known in the past. He had to give proof of his capacity so that Elies Rogent gave him the tittle of Architect affirming that he did it for a fool or a genius. Opportunities to prove his competence were given starting with La Casa Vicens, and finally became accepted by the society of Barcelona. Eusebi Güell (1846-1918) got impressed with the singularity of a wooden crystal iron piece and from that time on, Güell became one of his most important clients. The 80’s represent progress in his career demonstrating his talent working in all forms of Architecture like, residences (Güell Palace), designs like El Capricho de Comillas and Pabellón de la Compañia Transatlantica de la Exposición de Cádiz, and religious motifs - - Episcopal Palace of Astorga, the school of Teresinas and the temple of Secret
Teresinas” and the bishops Torras and Bages, the most influent personages of the religious ideologies at the end of the nineteenth century. The general thought of his modernist generation, nominated the Catalan Movement that corresponds to Art Nouveau had its format in 1888. But Gaudi could go longer of the historical boundaries dominating the period and formulating his own concept of aesthetic, which made his style becoming unmistakable, and difficult to classify at the same time. He refuses the proposal to take part of the municipal elections in 1905 and dedicates time to execute the façade of Indications, The Secret Family Temple, until his death in 1926. “The preferred materials of Gaudi were ceramics, iron (heated metal), cement and stone (Zerbst 30)”. “This façade demonstrates Gaudi’s preoccupation to portray Jesus’ birth, showing all the scenes and personages included in the passage, like the animals, plants, kings, pastors and the secret family (St. Mary, St. Joseph, and Baby Jesus). Gaudi took care even from the position of the entrance by showing the Birth Façade to the Orient because rising sun comes from this direction, and The Façade of Passion to the opposite side because of the sunset. “The quality of Secret Temple is engaged with the correct and perfect use of light” (Yoshida 52). “In 1900, this façade reached 32 meters. There are three doors. The first one on the left represents hope, the central one, Jesus’ birth, and the right one represents faith. Matemala helped Gaudi, in order to have very close reproductions considering animals, human bodies and figures he represented.”04 “The Secret Family is considered a standard gothic inspiration of modern architecture and the greatest project of Gaudi’s life. He portrays the temple entrance by presenting one thousand five hundred singers, seven hundred kids, five organs, and this monumental construction seems to be of a theater scenery.”05 As Louis Sullivan (One of Gaudi’s ranking contemporary in
In this sense, Gaudi’s first statement is that sculpture and painting need architecture that is the first plastic art (54). So, his work on the façade cannot be isolated from the whole spaces he created for the sculptures. His relationship with people from the church should intensify his deep religious feelings and intentions and finally dedicated special attention to solve problems so that his plans should work out.
He dedicated a long time to work with Secret Family (1884) and even stopped to accept different projects (1908) working on it until 1926. In accordance with Xavier Güell, The Passion Façade was started in 1952 and finished in 1978. The church, which remains on remodeling after 115 years since it was started, became a notorious center of visitation in Barcelona. Gaudi was considered modern but not modernist. He was the son of his time, not because of the incorporated modernity like some intellectuals interpreted his work. Gaudi got projection in Catalunia but not with the noise of scandalous passages because of his revolutionary concepts of Art, and there are those critics who could not understand him. But he is also reported to be generous and honest. “The richness of Gaudi’s art lies in the recognition of the fantastic and the practical, the subjective and the scientific, the spiritual, and the material” [Curtis 60] .His biggest work was Celestial Jerusalem. Josep Carner and Puig Oriol (1884-1970), wrote: ("Si gozáis con el Modernismo/ no os quedéis a medio camino: / alcanzad el paroxismo/ de gozarlo con Gaudí"). 06 Which means, Gaudi is an icon to understand Modernism.
If we consider the new tendencies in terms of Arts in Brazil we do have to note that the beginning of the 50’s printed out a new radical changing in all the system of art. In 1922, (Gaudi was close to his end), one of the greatest movements of Art in Brazil took part, and was called the week of Modern Art. Since that time Modernism was always the first reference in terms of tendencies.06 Poty
was contemporary to all these events. But his works are still very regional and far away from all these
tendencies, however he studied in
As Regina Casillo comments: “All the cities have their own values, like Guignard is to Minas Gerais, Di Cavalcanti to Rio de Janeiro, and Curitiba was given the present by the Gods to have Napoleon Potyguara Lazzarotto as its main value (trans.).”06 Poty Lazzarotto was born in March 29th, 1924, providing a cue of his destiny. It is the date, of Curitiba’s birthday (310 years old), as the ex-prefect Rafael Greca de Macedo replied: “The city he would never get stressed to portray on his paintings.” 07 Poty’s work is basically centered in murals wherever visitors or not, go in the capital of Paraná, São Paulo or Rio. His noticed talent designated Lazzarotto’s life since he was fourteen. He created a personage called Haroldo, and then, became famous because of his figures. His work is known throughout the world, especially in Rio de Janeiro where one of his murals was destroyed by the fire in 1964. In Sao Paulo he created the mural called Latin America Memorial. But it is in Paraná that his work is more representative. 08 In accordance with Valêncio Xavier in his article, Poty, Humus Curitibano, “Poty is an illustrator, muralist and build up panels and façades also in concrete. His religious is to be fine with God, and with the whole humanity. He has a religious of charity and tolerance, of love and self-donation”(Gazeta do Povo 1997). He attended the College of Arts in Curitiba. The murals are great, and remarks of his work are never confounded. “Poty’s favorite materials were ceramics, stained glass windows, engraved wood, mosaics (glazed tiles) and cement ” (Veja Magazine 1998). In "Largo da Ordem" there’s a mural representing the chariots of the grocers, basically Italian and Polish colonial people (glazed tiles). Another wonderful work is the mural at 19 de Dezembro Square in celebration to the Centenary of Paraná. At Iguaçu Palace, one can see the mural Allegory of Paraná, the façade of Iguaçu Palace, inaugurated in 1953 (same technique of the Theater).
The main work to be analyzed is in front of Guaíra Theater. It portrays The Theater in the World (1969). “Before dying in 1998, Poty could see an exhibition organized by CEF; one of the strongest banks in Brazil with designs, outlines, and miniatures that could be shown all together for the first time, as Mrs. Casillo explains.”09
The preliminary point to be considered should be the fact that the first theater started to be built (1855) in Curitiba at the same time Gaudi was walking first steps (1852). But the first inaugurated one (1884) is now the building of the Public Library in Curitiba. Guaíra Theater was a prison originally, during the Federalist Revolution and only in 1900 it was reopened with the name Guayra. It was demolished. In 1952 it was rebuilt because of public request under the command of Rubens Meister (architect). The first stage was Salvador de Ferrante (1954) and the big one was built 16 years later. A fire destroyed the theater in 1970, and in 1975 it was finally concluded, becoming one of the greatest artistic-cultural-complexes of Latin America. Only after all these reforms, Poty Lazzarotto, the artist who signed the frontal façade and had already worked on the designs was contracted (He did not execute his work alone). He projected the fire-curtain of the stage Bento Munhoz da Rocha Neto. He also created the fire-curtain of the theater known as Salvador de Ferrante Auditorium, both executed by Laila Tarran, and Carmen Carini. As Laila explains, Poty followed the execution and even added details out of the project to the curtains. He also participated of the execution of the frontal Façade.
The Façade of Guaíra Theater (24,50 x 4.80) provides a wonderful view of the evolution of the theater throughout the world. Different tonalities of gray and white are observed (the moulds were made of wood, providing a different tonality), as well as different levels of a plan structure of cement, divided in several rectangles, set in so many different planes (Some of them are negative).
Contrary to the panel performed with the same technique (on the walls of
A marvelous scenery of a retrospective of the evolution of the theater along the time and throughout the world can be observed if one centers the eyes from the left to the right, in order to read what Poty wants to transmit. He starts with the presentation of a pine-tree (symbol of the South of Brazil - - Araucaria angustifolia - -), and an old citizen contrasting with a young girl, the fire, and a mask. Then, a second moment, showing a pathway, directing to a town. Right after, a big eye, some architectonic lines and the figure of a couple of cangaçeiros - - typical personages from the North of Brazil - - as usual, highlighting the supreme function of a man to protect a woman (masculine values). She works, while he carries a gun on his hands. Poty also sets a group of dancers, involved in abstract representations, and an angel can be seen very close to signs. He puts two ladies side by side. One is overdressed with a long dress and holds a fan. The second one is very modern and carries a purse. The last moment centered on the right portrays a globe, being carried by a chariot, and many dancers. Many instruments can also be seen like a harp, a violin, and a trumpet. Finally, a man wearing a hat can be noticed on the back. The style of the façades (big and small auditorium) is similar and proportional.
 If for any reason, Poty’s work came to print mainly historical values concerned about regional cultural aspects, as he always does, that was not Gaudi’s preoccupation, because the Secret Family is a religious universal symbol. In accordance with Salvador Tarragó in his work Gaudí Entre la Estrutura y la Forma “ Gaudi manifests his influence in oriental culture, roman culture and especially gothic”. He also describes Gaudi’s work “Secret Temple” with these words: Externally, Secret Family with campaniles reaching 100 to 115 meters high, four structures of the evangelists (127 meters) from the aside (125 meters) and finally the cruise (175 meters high). Curiously, The Passion Façade is more modern than the first one (Secret Family). Like Gaudi, “Poty is also referred as portraying universal values, no matter it had regional focus.”10 So, both can be considered similar in terms of this reference. Artists like Gaudi could be pointed out as creators of a new language with the depth, rigor, and range of application of the great styles of the past (Curtis 31). The same could be said about Poty.
Gaudi should be much more helpful for the humanity if he had worked only with his designs and projects, reserving builders the responsibility to incorporate values to the buildings. In this case Poty is taken part of projects, even after his death. It sounds that Gaudi had to be everything. Nowadays, with the division of the work, consolidated mainly with the contemporary vision of the world, it sounds that people know exactly how short life is to reserve so many realizations for only one man (Gaudi’s death is related with stress). Poty works with different plans and Gaudi, mainly with volume (His figures are represented in natural side), and are much more realistic than Poty’s. As George Collins mentioned:
[. . .] It was invaluable for me to be able to spend unhurried time setting, observing, experiencing the space, the forms, the colors: the scale of people moving through and around using Gaudi’s spaces; the effect of light – that incredible Mediterranean light – upon forms, the
changes from morning to evening (Yoshida 11).
[03 Considering the style of Gaudi, he is described as realistic or actual. “The fact is that for years
many of us used to accept our gaze from the super-real sculptures of the Secret Temple Façade and mutter apologetically. He was considered abstract, expressionist in 1880 with his broken-tile mosaics” (Yoshida). If one considers Gaudi’s influence it would be possible to say that to determine his influence on others is not easy, although it has been widespread. As it is reported: [. . .] We will never know if there was an influence (Yoshida). Gaudi is being considered a Saint. The value of his work resides on his work and biography. Though, the architecture is autobiographic. “His work reaches the immortality and universality”(54). He could project not only a complement as part of the building. Gaudi was one century in front of his time, and besides Picasso, Miró and many ones, he could make of
The personalization of a city seems to be a form to keep people involved with the life of the created spaces in it, and mainly determining the interactive movement of people going here and there, to be in touch with creations which provoke emotional reactions, also permitting people to have interfaces, and interpretations of urban life and open a space to every new conception of art itself. Cunha 13
As Laila Tarran mentioned in an interview: “There is no innocent look”. And there is a code of spaces in all the cities nowadays. Space for leisure, residential areas, business area, marketing, parks, shopping centers, churches, hospitals, theater, and so on. Do works of art take part of these places? Do they add anything to these spaces, or do they diminish the functionality of that certain space? So, if one goes downtown Barcelona and sees needles up to the sky confronting with high modern buildings, does this fact disturb anyone, or does it give the impression that the city has a whole history? How about the Arch of Guaíra, with those lighted apartments windows behind? It is not uncommon to listen people saying: “But this Poty’s mural was a fortune for the government...” Or, “Gaudi should have spent all the money of the families in a very difficult time (Civil War)...” But a city is too much like a person who can’t stay nude, or cannot wear the same outfitting for the rest of his/her life. But their geniality was not that misunderstood. “When a man is really a genius, he reflects all his geniality in everything he touches. And this is the reason the general mechanic, to be used by Gaudi in his works” (Yoshida 44). The same could be said of Poty. They can both be compared with some Mythological References considering that like Eros and Tanatos, both artists seem to fight against death, because of the dramatic and contradictory existence, affirming their own. As Mirabeau says:
If we ask what civilization is, most of the people would answer: civilization of manners, urbanity, politeness, diffusion of knowledge so that the inclusion of respect rather than laws can be noticed. And it all seems to be the mask of virtues, and not the face, and civilization does not do any good for the society if it’s not the form and substance of virtue (Elias 54).
It can also be inferred from this approach that the submerged industrial society takes with it all the principles mainly in the two last centuries. Modern architecture is coming down because the moral legitimization of its aesthetics and philosophical reasons don’t exist any more.
However, [. . . ] “ Modernity as Baudelaire wrote in his article The Painter of Modern Life printed in 1863, is the transitory, the escapable, the contingent, it is half of the art, being the other half
the eternal and immutable” (
Changes here and there will give the sensation that the city belongs to its people. In Brazil, some sculptures can be seen as a “house” for poor people (Sao Paulo). In Curitiba, at least, the Art of Lazzarotto stays on the walls, and most of the time, they report values from the state, and country in terms of History. In accordance with Poty, “Curitiba, as a city, is presented by different forms which are not from the city itself, but from all the cities. He is devoted to Curitiba and is elevated to the position of extreme consideration by people from this town (Veja Magazine 1989). As Jaime Lerner reports:
The Cultural Revolution had it start when the city began thinking about its own vocation and, at the same time, about its own administration, in a very simple manner and without any mystery. This is when two questions arose: Which is the city’s vocation? Where does it lead? So long as these questions are not asked, cities are subject to the whims of someone that will invent another vocation and impose another path. Paris for example, has its vocation. The same goes to Barcelona, thanks to the hardheaded Catalonians. These cities – the older ones long ago and the younger Curitiba more recently – have found out that identity is an item that relates to quality of life (Torres 31).
The last sensation for the future generations, is that as much clean the spaces are, as much healthy they will be, no matter what is being shown or represented in terms of Arts. Like a modern city, whose architects have learned with Gaudi, Curitiba got the right concept of property on setting the arts printing out a unique language in terms of style, and giving everybody a reason to wake up in the next
morning, only to take the bus, car, bike, or even walk, and interact with colors, history, and beauty! Artists repported the past looking to the future (Taylor177). Another interesting point is that like Schools of Secret Temple (1883-1926), Guaira Theater also has a school aggregated to the institution.
As Stella Pandell Russell reports “... Everyone can share in the impulse to create, although we are not all creative to the same degree” [. . . ] (Russell 21). And this is wonderful, because each human has a different conception and interpretation of reality. The fact that both artists have printed personality to these places must be considered not only as a manifestation of human extraordinary potentiality to create but also the necessity to have an encounter with beauty, and abstract its relative concept, by casually passing in front of a public edification that immortalizes the life of each town and the personality of the artists. [ . . . ] Barcelona spread ideas to buildings. A kind of condominium called “La Barceloneta Apartment (1951) became a tendency in urban life with a gaudinian style” (Curtis 485). Coincidentally, in Curitiba, some buildings were also personalized with works of Poty nowadays. It sounds that everything is linked in terms of ideas.
As Simone Landau mentions, “Poty was not an aristocratic citizen. He liked some things and simply brought it to reality. He gave importance to the whole production of art” (Gazeta do Povo 1998). Poty donated all his collection of works and personal acquisitions of Arts, before dying. (Veja Magazine 1998). It can also be said that Poty and Gaudi’s inheritance is much worthier than personal belongings themselves. It is for the entire world, however the history of both buildings (Gaudi’s projects during Civil War (1936) and the theater while being built) relates accidents involving fire.11But even the fire could not contain such a dream to be truth!
However Gaudi and Poty had proper style, and very specific focus in terms of thematic performance, one can perfectly understand that the intention of both artists is expressed by an
expressive media, not ignored by the eyes of the planers of any other city, like
They both make anyone feeling as part of the world through their works. It is too much like looking through the eyes of the others! If it is not beauty, it is at least beautiful to have such a divine opportunity, no matter how intensive one can simply face Gaudi and Poty’s experiences to interpret life, printing such an abstract concept to their very concrete works, reserving to each one, the recognition of proper language they both have, and interfaces as much as one can notice them! Such variety of forms prints new colors to the planet! And that’s why no stone or brick has been removed from their created spaces, with similarities and differences. Not men neither nature could! The base has been good enough through the years. And beauty is symbolized by power! The same one that makes each stone or brick remain over another one, for centuries! Blessed hands that built residences for fundamental human values, guided by brilliant minds of artists, like Poty and Gaudi whose ideas represent the power of transformation of a world not always harmonized with essential convictions! The same minds that could see the last element being put on their creations, like imaginary ended symbols of beauty, converted in reality, proving that a wish is everything for those who believe in it, and are determined enough to carry them on!
Written by: Antônio Domingos Araújo Cunha - 07/04/2003
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MSN. Antoni Gaudi. January 19th, 2003.http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antoni_Gaudi
MSN. Artcyclopedia. January 19th, 2003.http://www.artcyclopedia.com/artists/gaudi_antoni.html
MSN. Antonio Gaudi – artists.org. January 19th, 2003.
MSN. Folha online. January 19th, 2003.
Great buildings- architect. January 19th, 2003.
MSN. Musical sobre Gaudi. January 19th, 2003.http://br.news.yahoo.com/020930/16/8gnn.html
MSN. Santificação de Gaudi. January 19th, 2003.
MSN. Antoni Gaudi. January 19th, 2003.
MSN. Lazzarotto 2002. January 19th, 2003.http://www.gaudi2002.bcn.es/castellano/
MSN. Gaudi. January 19th, 2003. http://www.starpagina.nl/
MSN. Gaudi – France. January 19th, 2003.http://www.ifrance.com/gaudi/
MSN. Antoni Gaudi artist. January 19th, 2003. http://www.netreach.net/~trishy/travels/gaudi.html
MSN. La sagrada familia. January 19th, 2003. http://www.xtrovertmedia.se/gaudi/
MSN. American Hotel. January 19th, 2003. http://www.op.net/~jmeltzer/Gaudi/hotel.html
MSN. Antoni Gaudi – website. January 19th, 2003.http://www.starpagina.nl/
MSN. Antoni Gaudi y Cornet. January 19th, 2003.http://www.cbrava.com/gaudi.de.htm
MSN. Antoni Gaudi – Arquitect. January 19th, 2003. http://inicia.es/de/nuestros/gaudi.htm
MSN. Antoni Gaudi. January 19th, 2003. http://www.kcnet.com/~marc/gaudi.html
MSN. Antoni Gaudi. January 19th, 2003.
MSN. About Gaudi. January 19th, 2003. http://www.op.net/~jmeltzer/Gaudi/about.html
MSN. Ciutat Gaudi. January 19th, 2003.http://www.geocities.com/SoHo/7745/
MSN. Das Barcelona. January 19th, 2003. http://www.red2000.com/spain/barcelon/2gaudi.html
MSN. Colonia Guell. January 19th, 2003. http://www.op.net/~jmeltzer/Gaudi/colonias.html
MSN. Caixa Catalunya. January 19th, 2003.
MSN. Beatificação de Gaudi . January 19th, 2003.
MSN. E-foco. Viagens Portugal e Espanha. January 19th, 2003.
MSN. Folha Online. January 19th, 2003.
MSN. Gau. January 19th, 2003. http://sites.uol.com.br/r2riccio/gau.htm
MSN. Gaudi&Barcelona. January 19th, 2003. http://www.gaudiclub.com/index.asp
MSN. Gaudi designer. January 19th, 2003.
MSN. Gaudi curs. January 19th, 2003. http://orbita.starmedia.com/~froi5/gaudi.html
MSN. Gaudi Antoni. January 19th, 2003.
MSN. Nouveau. January 19th, 2003. http://www.terravista.pt/mussulo/1193/nouveau.htm
MSN. Diversão. January 19th, 2003. http://www.uol.com.br/diversao/reuters/ult26u9247.shl
MSN. Super online. January 19th, 2003. http://www.uol.com.br/diversao/reuters/ult26u9247.shl
MSN. Exclusão de Gaudi. January 19th, 2003.
MSN. façade – Sagrada Família. January 19th, 2003.
MSN. Guardian. January 19th, 2003.
MSN. Antoni Gaudi – photo tour . January 19th, 2003.
MSN. Antoni Gaudi – façades. January 19th, 2003.
MSN. Sagrada Família – fachada. January 19th, 2003.
MSN. A magia de Barcelona. January 19th, 2003. http://www.wcams.com.br/cronica_lilian_18.htm
MSN. Home page – Gaudi. January 19th, 2003. http://www.geocities.com/SoHo/Lofts/9477/gaudi.htm
MSN. Next and last thoughts – Gaudi. January 19th, 2003. http://www.kcnet.com/~marc/gaudi.html
MSN. Gaudi. January 19th, 2003.
MSN. Gaudi Club. January 19th, 2003. http://www.gaudiclub.com/index.asp
MSN. La sagrada famiglia. January 19th, 2003.
MSN. Mad about Gaudi. January 19th, 2003. http://www.telebooks.com/
MSN. Gaudi. January 19th, 2003. http://perso.magic.fr/cjupin/gaudi.htm
MSN. Gaudi Central. January 19th, 2003. http://www.op.net/~jmeltzer/gaudi.html
MSN. Gaudi. January 19th, 2003. http://www.em.ufop.br/op/aleij.htm
MSN. Fabricamus oggi. January 25, 2003.
MSN. Expiadourabili. January 19th, 2003. http://www.em.ufop.br/op/aleij.htm
MSN. Poty Lazzarotto. January 17, 2003.
MSN. Poty Lazzarotto. January 17, 2003.
MSN. Poty Lazzarotto. January 17, 2003 http://www.celepar.br/celepar/setr/aeroportos/fotosap.html
MSN. Poty Lazzarotto. January 17, 2003 http://www.londrina.pr.gov.br/museudearte/obras1.php3?Codigo=obra30&Titulo=Auto
MSN. Poty Lazzarotto. January 17, 2003. www.bonde.com.br/marciaohde/poty-detalhe.htm
MSN. Poty Lazzarotto. January 17, 2003. www.bonde.com.br/marciaohde/poty.htm
MSN. Poty Lazzarotto. January 17, 2003. www4.sul.com.br/sa/poty1.htm
MSN. Poty Lazzarotto. January 17, 2003. www.lancaster-hoteis.com/ingles/planta2.htm
MSN. Poty Lazzarotto. January 17, 2003. www.celepar.br/celepar/setr/aeroportos/fotosap.html
MSN. Poty Lazzarotto. January 17, 2003. www.contracampo.he.com.br/25/avisitadovelhosenhor.htm
MSN. Poty Lazzarotto. January 17, 2003. www.celepar.br/curitiba/ctba44.html
MSN. English and American Studies. January 25, 2003. http://www.art.man.ac.uk/ENGLISH/staff/te/home.htm
MSN. Learning to Look. January 25, 2003.http://ifets.ieee.org/periodical/vol_1_2002/rountree.html
MSN. Art of the World. January 25, 2003. http://www.art-for-the-world.com/
MSN. From Abacus to Zeus. January 25, 2003. http://www.papiermache.co.uk/exec/cms-books/p-view/isbn-0130197289
MSN. Learning to Look. January 25, 2003. http://www.erasmus-foundation.org/old_site/REIN12.HTM
MSN. Assignments ideas. January 25, 2003
 – Describe the works –(physical dimension, media, date of each work, the artist, where the works are located, color, line, texture, shapes, forms, volumetric depth, surface emphasis).
 – Compare similarities and differences
 - Comp. Style - Similarities and differences ( basic information about them – birth and death dates) cultural background – linking profile with the work itself.
Artistic medium – artistic material productions Artistic medium – artistic material productions
Associative elements – an attempt to reach harmony.
Assemblage – join of elements of art. Assemblage – join of elements of art.
Cangaçeiros – People from the North of
Caipiras – People from the field who did not interact so much with cultural references of urban life.
Composition – adjustment, orderly disposition; regulation.
Compression – Lat. Compressus. Pressing together
Gralha azul – A special bird that carries the fruit of pine “pinhão”to different lands.
Lambrequim – an ornamentation of the houses in Paraná, Brazil.
Mass – gather or assemble into a mass
Perspective – show objects as they appear to the eye with reference to relative distance or depth.
Pinhão – The fruit of Araucaria angustifolia ( a pine)
Shape – an imaginary or spectral form.
Space – to arrange at proper intervals.
Tension – a state of strained relations.
Visual elements – what can be observed by looking, as individual parts of a whole representation
Autor: ANTONIO DOMINGOS CUNHA
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